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Catherine longed for recognition as an enlightened sovereign. It was he who conve… ", Ruth P. Dawson, “Perilous News and Hasty Biography : Representations of Catherine II Immediately after her Seizure of the Throne.” Biography 27 (2004), 517–34, K. D. Bugrov, "Nikita Panin and Catherine II: Conceptual aspect of political relations. At the time of Peter III's overthrow, other potential rivals for the throne included Ivan VI (1740–1764), who had been confined at Schlüsselburg in Lake Ladoga from the age of six months, and was thought to be insane. [30] Nothing came of this, however, and Catherine reigned until her death as an autocrat without any Constitution introducing human rights to Russian legislation. Orlov and Poniatowksi are both suspected to be fathers to her two other children as well. A popular insult to the empress's legacy at the time is that she died after having sex with her horse. The commission had to consider the needs of the Russian Empire and the means of satisfying them. Orlov, therefore, was in no danger because of his relationship with Catherine until he became involved with her in a conspiracy to overthrow the sovereign. In actuality, Catherine had approximately twelve consecutive "favorites", the most famous of whom were Grigory Orlov, an instrumental member in the coup that had brought her to power, and Grigory Potemkin, a statesman, diplomat, and military leader who may have married her secretly. [81] Catherine had at first attempted to hire a Chinese architect to build the Chinese Village, and on finding that was impossible, settled on Cameron, who likewise specialised in the chinoiserie style. [90], During Catherine's reign, Russians imported and studied the classical and European influences that inspired the Russian Enlightenment. Catherine shared in the general European craze for all things Chinese, and made a point of collecting Chinese art and buying porcelain in the popular Chinoiserie style. She made a special effort to bring leading intellectuals and scientists to Russia. St Petersburg, Russia. The group that su… Alexéi Grigórievich Orlov (en ruso: Алексей Григорьевич Орлов, 24 de septiembre jul. [100] This work emphasised the fostering of the creation of a 'new kind of people' raised in isolation from the damaging influence of a backward Russian environment. He represented an opposite to Peter's pro-Prussian sentiment, with which Catherine disagreed. In 1771, he was sent as first Russian plenipotentiary to the peace congress of Focşani, but he failed in his mission, owing partly to the obstinacy of the Ottomans, and partly (according to Panin) to his own outrageous insolence. They refused to comply, and in 1764, she deported over 20,000 Old Believers to Siberia on the grounds of their faith. In addition, some governors listened to the complaints of serfs and punished nobles, but this was by no means universal. However, if the tsar's policies were too extreme or too disliked, she was not considered the true tsar. He participated with his elder brothers, Gregory and Alexis, in the coup d'état of 1762, after which he was appointed chief procurator of the senate. Under her leadership, she completed what Peter III had started: The church's lands were expropriated, and the budget of both monasteries and bishoprics were controlled by the College of Economy. Finally Catherine annexed the Crimea in 1783. Alexei was born into the noble Orlov family in Lyubini in Tver Oblast on 5 October 1737, the son of Grigory Ivanovich Orlov, governor of Novgorod, and brother of Grigory Grigoryevich Orlov. 6 November] 1796), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader. The tsar's eccentricities and policies, including a great admiration for the Prussian king, Frederick II, alienated the same groups that Catherine had cultivated. Catherine II[a] (born Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst; 2 May 1729 in Szczecin – 17 November 1796[b]), most commonly known as Catherine the Great,[c] was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796—the country's longest-ruling female leader. Catherine died of tuberculosis in 1781, at the age of 23, in Lausanne, Switzerland. [133]:119 Catherine bought the support of the bureaucracy. "[148] In the end, the empress was laid to rest with a gold crown on her head and clothed in a silver brocade dress. [79] She ordered the planting of the first "English garden" at Tsarskoye Selo in May 1770. During the Russian ... Catherine even wanted to marry Orlov, but public opinion was strongly against it because many people believed he had murdered the tsar. Because the serfs had no political power, they rioted to convey their message. Based on her writings, she found Peter detestable upon meeting him. By 1786, Catherine excluded all religion and clerical studies programs from lay education. Catherine II. The family first gained distinction in the 18th century through the achievements of five Orlov brothers, of whom the second eldest was Catherine the Great's paramour, and two younger brothers were notable military commanders. She came to power following a coup d'état that overthrew her husband and second cousin, Peter III. Russia invaded Poland on 26 August 1764, threatening to fight, and imposing Poniatowski as king. Retrato de Catalina II - Fedor Stepanovich Rokotov. [64] Catherine gave them this new right, but in exchange they could no longer appeal directly to her. The Ottomans restarted hostilities in the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–92. The positions on the Assembly were appointed and paid for by Catherine and her government as a way of regulating religious affairs. Instead she pioneered for Russia the role that Britain later played through most of the 19th and early 20th centuries as an international mediator in disputes that could, or did, lead to war. Madame Vigée Le Brun vividly describes the empress in her memoirs:[93], Madame Vigée Le Brun also describes the empress at a gala:[94], Catherine held western European philosophies and culture close to her heart, and she wanted to surround herself with like-minded people within Russia. [86] In the third category fell the work of Voltaire, Friedrich Melchior, Baron von Grimm, Ferdinando Galiani, Nicolas Baudeau and Sir William Blackstone. Age when killed: 23Murderers: prison guards Ivan VI. Just prior to her arrival in Russia, she participated in a duel with her female second cousin from Anhalt. When she wrote her memoirs, she said she made the decision then to do whatever was necessary and to profess to believe whatever was required of her to become qualified to wear the crown. Only when a new legal heir, the son of Catherine and Peter, had appeared to be strong and to survive, had Elizabeth allowed Catherine to have real sexual lovers because Elizabeth probably wanted to leave both Catherine and her accomplice Peter III without any rights for a Russian throne in revenge for the participation of the pair in military plots to crown Peter and Catherine. For some years, he was virtually co-ruler with her, but his repeated infidelities and the enmity of Catherine's other advisers led to his fall from power. [3] As a patron of the arts, she presided over the age of the Russian Enlightenment, including the establishment of the Smolny Institute for Noble Maidens, the first state-financed higher education institution for women in Europe. 160x121 Fedor Stepanovich Rokotov es uno de los mejores retratistas rusos de la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII. Catherine and Orlov were also lovers. [44], In 1764, Catherine placed Stanisław August Poniatowski, her former lover, on the Polish throne. [55], In 1768, the Assignation Bank was given the task of issuing the first government paper money. Russian local authorities helped his party, and the Russian government decided to use him as a trade envoy. This alliance provided Catherine II with the military support required to stage a coup against Emperor Peter III. She thus spent much of this time alone in her private boudoir to hide away from Peter's abrasive personality. Peter III; Catherine II, Saints Peter and Paul Cathedral, Saint Petersburg, Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, Princess Johanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp, Count Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorff, Russia in the American Revolutionary War § Russian Diplomacy during the War, "Instructions for the Guidance of the Assembly", Princess Wilhelmina Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt, Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy, Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia (1786–1859), Duchess Sophie Auguste of Holstein-Gottorp, Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, Duke Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Duchess Johanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp, Princess Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach, Duchess Auguste Marie of Holstein-Gottorp, "Religion and Enlightenment in Catherinian Russia: The Teachings of Metropolitan Platon by Elise Kimerling Wirtschafter", Christian August (Fürst von Anhalt-Zerbst), M. Safonov. Gregory Orlov. In the south, the Crimean Khanate was crushed following victories over the Bar confederation and Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774 due to the support of the United Kingdom, and Russia colonised the territories of Novorossiya along the coasts of the Black and Azov Seas. Because the Moscow Foundling Home was not established as a state-funded institution, it represented an opportunity to experiment with new educational theories. Several bank branches were afterwards established in other towns, called government towns. Despite his objection, however, on 28 June 1744, the Russian Orthodox Church received Princess Sophie as a member with the new name Catherine (Yekaterina or Ekaterina) and the (artificial) patronymic Алексеевна (Alekseyevna, daughter of Aleksey) i. e. with the same name as Catherine I, the mother of Elizabeth and the grandmother of Peter III. However, peasants owned by the state generally and especially free peasants had more freedoms than those owned by a noble. Elizabeth requested her legal heir from Catherine. Her rise to power was supported by her mother's wealthy relatives, who were both nobles and royal relations. Catherine II the Great (1729–1796)An enlightened despot, who seized the throne from her husband Tsar Peter III and ruled Russia as empress and autocrat of All the Russias for over 34 years. Historians debate Catherine's technical status, whether as a regent or as a usurper, tolerable only during the minority of her son, Grand Duke Paul. Only 400,000 rubles of church wealth were paid back. They indeed helped modernise the sector that totally dominated the Russian economy. In 1780, she established a League of Armed Neutrality, designed to defend neutral shipping from being searched by the Royal Navy during the Revolutionary War. ", John T. Alexander, "Catherine the Great and public health. Later uprisings in Poland led to the third partition in 1795. She disliked his pale complexion and his fondness for alcohol at such a young age. Olga Constantinovna of Russia, great-great-granddaughter of Catherine, was the paternal grandmother of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and his descendants which include Prince Charles, Prince of Wales; his son, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge; and William's son, Prince George of Cambridge; the three direct heirs to the throne of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Orlov, Grigori Grigoryevich, Count (grĭgô`rē grĭgôr`yəvĭch, ərlôf`), 1734–83, Russian nobleman.One of the first lovers of Catherine II Catherine II or Catherine the Great, 1729–96, czarina of Russia (1762–96). [127] While claiming religious tolerance, she intended to recall the believers into the official church. He also placed great emphasis on the "proper and effectual education of the female sex"; two years prior, Catherine had commissioned Ivan Betskoy to draw up the General Programme for the Education of Young People of Both Sexes. [23] Catherine recalled in her memoirs her optimistic and resolute mood before her accession to the throne: After the death of the Empress Elizabeth on 5 January 1762 (OS: 25 December 1761), Peter succeeded to the throne as Emperor Peter III, and Catherine became empress consort. As the president of the Free Economic Society, he was also their most prominent advocate in the great commission of 1767, though he aimed primarily at pleasing the empress, who affected great liberality in her earlier years. The diplomatic intrigue failed, largely due to the intervention of Sophie's mother, Johanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp. ", James W. Marcum, "Catherine II and the French Revolution: A Reappraisal. Catherine saw Orlov as very useful, and he became instrumental in the 28 June 1762 coup d’état against her husband, but she preferred to remain the dowager empress of Russia rather than marrying anyone. [68] Although she did not want to communicate directly with the serfs, she did create some measures to improve their conditions as a class and reduce the size of the institution of serfdom. An admirer of Peter the Great, Catherine continued to modernize Russia along Western European lines. Prussia (through the agency of Prince Henry), Russia (under Catherine), and Austria (under Maria Theresa) began preparing the ground for the partitions of Poland. Although she mastered the language, she retained an accent. Historian François Cruzet writes that Russia under Catherine: had neither a free peasantry, nor a significant middle class, nor legal norms hospitable to private enterprise. [111], In 1762, to help mend the rift between the Orthodox church and a sect that called themselves the Old Believers, Catherine passed an act that allowed Old Believers to practise their faith openly without interference. [5] In accordance with the custom then prevailing in the ruling dynasties of Germany, she received her education chiefly from a French governess and from tutors. [34], Catherine's foreign minister, Nikita Panin (in office 1763–1781), exercised considerable influence from the beginning of her reign. Construction of many mansions of the nobility, in the classical style endorsed by the empress, changed the face of the country. She acted as mediator in the War of the Bavarian Succession (1778–1779) between the German states of Prussia and Austria. After Catherine II was seated on the throne she rewarded the participants of the revolt, lavishing on them titles, money, estates and serfs. During the reign of Russia's Empress Ekaterina II (Catherine the Great), Count Orlov writes a letter to the Empress, denouncing Princess Tarakanova as a traitor and a would-be usurper. Historical accounts portray Johanna as a cold, abusive woman who loved gossip and court intrigues. Gavrila Derzhavin, Denis Fonvizin and Ippolit Bogdanovich laid the groundwork for the great writers of the 19th century, especially for Alexander Pushkin. They had an illegitimate son, Aleksey who was named after the village of Bobriki, and from whom descends the line of the Count Bobrinsky. Catherine believed education could change the hearts and minds of the Russian people and turn them away from backwardness. However, the Legislative Commission of 1767 offered several seats to people professing the Islamic faith. King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands is a great-great-great-grandson of Anna Pavlovna of Russia, who was a granddaughter of Catherine. The plan was another attempt to force nomadic people to settle. [107] One system that particularly stood out was produced by a mathematician, Franz Aepinus. [145] A German scholar Adam Olearius in his 1647 book Beschreibung der muscowitischen und persischen Reise claimed that Russians had fondness for sodomy, especially with horses. Catherine the Great is one of the more famous Russian rulers. He discusses new biographies written about the successive rule of Catherine II, Peter III, and Paul I. Raeff blames Communism for the neglect of this period of Russian History. Sophie recalled in her memoirs that as soon as she arrived in Russia, she fell ill with a pleuritis that almost killed her. Mostly, Catherine ruled alone. Catherine named Sahin Girey, a Crimean Tatar leader to head the Crimean state and maintain friendly relations with Russia. According to her memoirs, Sophie was regarded as a tomboy, and trained herself to master a sword. Bored with her husband, Catherine became an avid reader of books, mostly in French. [128][129], Religious education was reviewed strictly. For example, serfs could apply to be freed if they were under illegal ownership, and non-nobles were not allowed to own serfs. Mourning dress is to be worn for six months, and no longer: the shorter the better. Catherine was crowned at the Assumption Cathedral in Moscow on 22 September 1762. He led the coup which overthrew Catherine's husband Peter III of Russia, and installed Catherine as empress. Catherine promised more serfs of all religions, as well as amnesty for convicts, if Muslims chose to convert to Orthodoxy. She called together at Moscow a Grand Commission—almost a consultative parliament—composed of 652 members of all classes (officials, nobles, burghers, and peasants) and of various nationalities. After the "Toleration of All Faiths" Edict of 1773, Muslims were permitted to build mosques and practise all of their traditions, the most obvious of these being the pilgrimage to Mecca, which previously had been denied. Peter supposedly was assassinated, but it is unknown how he died. Catherine wanted to become an empress herself and did not want another heir to the throne. It opened in Saint Petersburg and Moscow in 1769. Prince Grigory Grigoryevich Orlov (Grigory Graf von Orlow) (1734–1783) was the favorite of Catherine the Great of Russia. Pre-eminent figures in Catherinian Russia include: Marriage, reign of Peter III, and coup d'état, Partitions of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Old Style Date: 21 April 1729 – 6 November 1796, "Despot" is not derogatory in this context. ", G.A. It was instituted by the Fundamental Law of 7 November 1775. [63] The understanding of law in imperial Russia by all sections of society was often weak, confused, or nonexistent, particularly in the provinces where most serfs lived. [15] Catherine disparaged her husband as devoted to reading "Lutheran prayer-books, the other the history of and trial of some highway robbers who had been hanged or broken on the wheel". [8][9] The more than 300 sovereign entities of the Holy Roman Empire, many of them quite small and powerless, made for a highly competitive political system as the various princely families fought for advantage over each other, often via political marriages. Her son Pavel later was inoculated as well. While a significant improvement, it was only a minuscule number, compared to the size of the Russian population. [127] In later years, Catherine amended her thoughts. Catherine the Great (or Catherine II) converted to Orthodoxy, changed her name, and married the Grand Duke Peter in 1745. Catherine II of Russia (Also titled Catherine the Great or Yekaterina Aleksei'evna) (April 21, 1729, Stettin, Germany – November 17, 1796 Tsarskoye Selo, Russia) was Empress of Russia.She came to power by a Coup d'état that deposed her husband, who was killed.. Catherine greatly increased the power of the crown. Profile portrait of Catherine II. Paul lived away from the court and her daughter was also forgotten. With Communism's collapse in Russia there is now a renewed interest in people such as Catherine the Great. Historians have not always been so kind to her memory, and all too often one reads accounts of her private life, ignoring her many achievements. By the time Peter became emperor, Catherine had begun an affair with a dashing artillery officer, Grigory Orlov. King Augustus III of Poland died in 1763, so Poland needed to elect a new ruler. The empress was a great lover of art and books, and ordered the construction of the Hermitage in 1770 to house her expanding collection of paintings, sculpture, and books. Grigory Orlov and his other three brothers found themselves rewarded with titles, money, swords, and other gifts, but Catherine did not marry Grigory, who proved inept at politics and useless when asked for advice. Grigory Orlov is one of the major figures in Russian history: a military and political figure of the 18th century, a favorite and associate of Catherine II. Catherine II, known as Catherine the Great, was born Princess Sophie in Stettin, Anhalt-Zerbst, a remote and poor German principality on the Baltic Sea.She was betrothed to the heir to the Russian throne, the future Peter III, in 1744. Catherine spent these years re… He was born in secret and given to Catherine’s room servant Shkurin to be brought up. In this act, she gave the serfs a legitimate bureaucratic status they had lacked before. [50] The Dzungar genocide which was committed by the Qing state had led many Dzungars to seek sanctuary in the Russian empire, and it was also one of the reasons for the abrogation of the Treaty of Kyakhta. [51] Catherine failed to reach any of the initial goals she had put forward. Catherine the Great. The peasants were discontented because of many other factors as well, including crop failure, and epidemics, especially a major epidemic in 1771. By the end of her reign, 50 provinces and nearly 500 districts were created, government officials numbering more than double this were appointed, and spending on local government increased sixfold. He received a palace in Saint Petersburg when Catherine became empress. Lensen, "Early Russo-Japanese Relations", [Kazimir Valishevsky. The Correspondence with Voltaire and the Instruction of 1767 in the English Text of 1768". She lost the large territories of the Russian protectorate of the Commonwealth of Poland and Lithuania and left its territories to Prussia and Austria. Because the diamond is mounted, it has not been accurately weighed. [60] By 1800, approximately 2 million inoculations (almost 6% of the population) were administered in the Russian Empire. After the decisive defeat of the Russian fleet at the Battle of Svensksund in 1790, the parties signed the Treaty of Värälä (14 August 1790), returning all conquered territories to their respective owners and confirming the Treaty of Åbo. Under her reign, Russia grew larger, its culture was revitalised, and it was recognized as one of the great powers worldwide. / Wikipedia Ivan VI (Ivan Antonovich, 1740 - 1764) never chose his destiny. Potemkin quickly gained positions and awards. The frustration affected Catherine's health. In terms of elite acceptance of a female ruler, it was more of an issue in Western Europe than in Russia. Favori de Catherine II (dont il eut un fils), il contribua à l arrestation puis à l élimination de Pierre III … Encyclopédie Universelle Poland ceased to exist as an independent nation.[139]. A description of the empress's funeral is written in Madame Vigée Le Brun's memoirs. In 1787, Catherine conducted a triumphal procession in the Crimea, which helped provoke the next Russo-Turkish War.[39]. Catherine decided it promoted the dangerous poison of the French Revolution. Awaking from her delirium, however, Sophie said: "I don't want any Lutheran; I want my Orthodox father [clergyman]." [115][116], Russia often treated Judaism as a separate entity, where Jews were maintained with a separate legal and bureaucratic system. Children of serfs were born into serfdom and worked the same land their parents had. She refused from the Duchy of Holstein-Gottorp which had ports on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean and from having Russian army in Germany. Some claimed Catherine failed to supply enough money to support her educational program. Sophie had turned 16; her father did not travel to Russia for the wedding. [98] In 1764, she sent for Dumaresq to come to Russia and then appointed him to the educational commission. Converted Jews could gain permission to enter the merchant class and farm as free peasants under Russian rule. The architectural design for the Orlov Gate, approved by Catherine II in 1771, was the work of Antonio Rinaldi. 10–12. From 1788 to 1790, Russia fought a war against Sweden, a conflict instigated by Catherine's cousin, King Gustav III of Sweden, who expected to simply overtake the Russian armies still engaged in war against the Ottoman Turks, and hoped to strike Saint Petersburg directly. At one time, the Empress thought of marrying her favorite, but the plan was frustrated by her influential advisor Nikita Panin.

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